TO · 2018. 11. 9. · to hemorrhagic, septic, or cardiogenic shock. The septic shock models. include injection of endotoxin alone, injection of endotoxin and living Escherichia coli - [PDF Document] (2023)





    TOApproved for public release, distributionunlimited

    FROMDistribution: Further dissemination onlyas directed by USArmy Medical Researchand Development Command, Attn:MEDDH-SI,Washington, DC 20315 JUL 1969 or higherDoD authority.


    US Army Medical Research and DevelopmentCommand ltr dtd 29 Aug1985



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    Report Number V

    The Treatment of Shock B9ased Upon1'hysioogical Principles andImpedancA Methodfor Moasuring Cardiac Output in Shock

    Annual Progress Report

    Richard C. Lillehe., M.D., Ph.D.

    July 1 1968 to June 30, 1969

    Supported By

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Cormand

    Washington, D.C. 20315

    Contract No. DA-49--193- IED-2539

    DDC Availability Statement

    "This dociument may be further distributed byIaxy holderonulywith specific prior arproval oft'he Co=,,nnME.7 eneral,'U.S.Army Medicial Research

    en- ^CM ;nA Af1MMlKY:Washington, D.C. 20315.'


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    Using radioactive microspheres, we have found thatneitherendbtoxin nor gram negative bacteria or the combination ofthetwo, when used to induce shock in dogs, causearteriovenousshunts to open in the gut or the liver. Shunts cannotbedemonstrated in the lungs under these same conditions.In-flammation in addition to injection of bacteria and/orendotoxinappears necessary before arteriovenoua shunts open.Capillarymembrane permeability pressutres in shock have beenmeasured In theforepaw of the dog. Shook is associated witha d6creased capillarypresure due to leak of fluid throughdamaged capillary walls.Maesive doses of corticosteroidsor tolerance to shock i.nduced withepinephrine or endotoxinpreserves membrane permeability pressure inthe normLl range.Tolerance to epinephrine or endotoxin is alsoP-seociated withdecreased reactivity of the renal and intestinalmicrocircula-tion. during ahock. Correlation between laboratoryexperimentsand clinical treatment of shock has been obtained withaportable shock unit.


    in conducting the research described in this report,theinvestigator(s) adherea to the "Guide for LaboratoryAnimalFacilities and Care," as prbmulgated by the Committeeon the Guidefor Laboratory Animal, Resources, NationalAcademy ofSciences-National Research Council.


    Page 2


    IDim NumberTitle lae I

    Abstract 2

    Foreword 2Table of Contents 3Body of Report - Outlined report4I. Experimental studies 4

    A. hicrocirculation in septic shookB. Capillary membranepermeability 5C. Tolerance to shonk 5

    II. Clinical shock unit patients 6A. General plan of obeervationand 6

    treatmentB. Hemodynumic observations in septic 7

    shockC. Cardiogenio Shock 7D. 'Impending shook 8

    !II. Impedance method for measuring cardiac a

    output in shockSelected Bibliography 9Distribution List10Document Control Data form 1473 (with abstract) 11Key Words12

    Back Cover

    Page 3

  • =B

    I. Experimental StudiesA. Ilcrocirculation in Septic Shock

    Arteriovenous shunting in the viscera of man apparentlyplays amajor role in the hmodynamic and metabolic distur-bances occurringin gram negative septic shock. Yet themechanism for shunting is notfully understood and the exls-tence of shunts is difficult toprove. We have studiedshunting in the lung, liver, and intestine ofdogs subjectedto hemorrhagic, septic, or cardiogenic shock. Thesepticshock models. include injection of endotoxin alone,injectionof endotoxin and living Escherichia coli bacteria, andin-Jection of endotoxin, living Escherichia coli bacteria andthecreation of an inflammatory focus in the viscera orsubcu-taneous tissues. Shunting in these shock models was studiedbythe use of radioactive plastic microspheres (25+5 micra)for theliver and intestine and by the use of arterial andvenous oxygentensions and Berggren's formula of the lung.

    The radioactive microspheres are injected into thesuperiormesenterLc artery of dogs following inaC>uion ofwhatever shockis being studied. Blood flow frrn 'he superior

    mesenteric veirs is then collected and the nunbei' ofmicro-bpheres passing. through the superior meaentericricrocircula-tion is estimated by measuring the radioactivity ofthecollected blood. The microspheres passing through thehepaticartery distrIbution of dogs in shock from various causesarecaught in the lungs and the radioactivity of the excised lungisthen measured.

    Berggren's equation has been used to determine thepulmonaryarteriovenous shunting in these same shock models.We have f-ondthat the number of microspheres as measured byradioactivity passingthrough the 8uperior mesenteric orhepatic circulation in dogs inshock from endotoxin or fromendotoxin and bacteria, is less thanone percent.

    The findihgs in the lung are similar to thcee for theliver andgut, with no significant increase in pulmonaryshunting noted frominjection of endotoxin or endotoxinsard 1ivhg baoteria. Thesestudies give further evidencethat in sepsis neither endotoxin norbacteria alone areresponsible for the arteriovenouq p1rni . vhichis socommonly found in mrn suffeing pt.r _r 1.,oJ.

    To simulate more closely th- septic -rocl cture of man,we arehow dbveloping an" experimental septic s*)crk model inthe dog, pig,ahd monkey, Which combines the i.,,.con ofliving bacteria,endotoxin, and the creation of a focus ofinflammation. Inpreliminary studies, we have he::- shownfor the first time that wecan reproduce the hem~d-Tiamicand metabolic changes which are seenin man suffering gramnegat ve sepsis. Our next step is to study theeffects oftreatment, with special emphasis on assive doses ofcortico-

    -t--ds on thas eseptic shock model in b Q.&honrdlaoutput and low resistance occurs. Proposals for this studyaredetailed in the contract application for the years1969 - 70.

    Page 4


  • B. Capilltxy Membrane PermeabilityIWe have studied the capillarymembrane permeability

    pressure olt the forepaw of dogs suffering shock due totheenidotoxin of Bs3herlchla coli bacteria. This Is anotherattemptto oxamine the microcirculation ih shock atd itsreeponue totret~tm~nt. Uain~, an ieolated, isogxavimietricforepaw of the dog,we determiniA the capillary permeabilitypresaure to be 17 u-inHg innorual dogs. Tbe cap illarypermeability pressure of the forepawfour houra followingthe induction of endotoxin shock decreauea to9.5 =4~iindicating that in endotoxin shock the capillaryintegrityis damaged and fluid is apparently leaking intointerstitialspaces more easily than normal,

    The isolated forepaw preparation of the shocked dogtreated earlywith fluids and a massive doae of methylpreenisolone retains acapillary permeability pressure in thenormal range (about 17 mmHg).This indicatea that treatme.has aparently stabilized and preservedthe integrity of thecapillary membrane in the forepaw and, by doingso, hasprevented loss of fluid into the interstitial spaces oftheforepaw. Thus, these studies show a specific .mechanism forthelose of volume in septic shock. Moreover, these cnvudiesshowanother beneficial effect of massive doses of cortico-steroids inmaintaining the integrity of the capillarymembrane. Previously wedemonstrated that massive doses ofsteroids slowed nerve impulsetransmission in sympatheticnerves which reduces the intensity ofvasoconstrictioncharacteristically occurring in shock.

    Similar studies on capillaryj permeability pressure arenow beingdone on the kidney. Here again, these studiesindicate that there iaa loss of capillary integrity asevidenced by lowered capillarypermeability pressure afterseptic shock is induced. Treatment withcorticosteroidsmaintains the permeability pressure of themicrocirculationof the kidliey in the normal range. The model herehas beenendutoxin induced shock, but similar changes appear tooccurin cardiogenic shock and in hemorrhagic shock when itisprolonged. Similar studies are being planned for the pig andforthe rhesus monkey to obtain data in experimental animalswith aphysiology more closely akin to man.

    C. Tclerance to ShockHigh doses of epinephrine, norepinephrine,and'endo-

    tox-in result in increased sympathetic nervousactivity,peripheral vasoconstrictioa, reduced tissue perfusionanddeath of doge. G~ven in sublethal amounts, the dosage oftrueseagents can be increased to usually l5thal levels with-

    ou aveseeffects if doein- a stpis fashion. The dogis thenconsidered tolerant to one or the other of thesevubstances. Underthese conditions, the dogs are relativelyinsensitive to sympatheticstimulation and do not respond byintense peripheralviscerocutaneous vaaoconstriction whichis, apparently, the cardinalresponse to hemorrhagic, septic,and cardiogenic shock.


  • In tolerant dbgs, rolatively insensitive to vasooon-strictlvestimuli, the induction of usually lethal homorrhagic,septia, oroardiogealc shook 4oes not result in the usualdegree of intensiveperipheral vasoconstriction. That is, thealpha adrenergicallysensitive viscorooutaneous vascular bedsdo not respond byvasoconstriotibn despite a foll in cardiacoutput and bloodpressure. Thus, blood flow remains moreequitably dietributed to allvascular beds. Moreover, oxygenconsumption remains in the normalrange and survival is near100 percent.

    Capillary permeability studies have been started ontolerant dogsin shock. These indicate that inauced toleranceto shook, likemassive doses o! corticceteroids, preserve amore normal capillarypressure, indicating that one means bywhich tolerance to Ahookproteots against doth is throughpreservation of capillaryintegrity.

    We have found that induction of tolerance by' the use ofchronicinjections ol epinephrine norepinephrine, or endotoxin,in sublethalamounts, can usually be induced in a minimum oftwo weeks. The'tolerance so induced appears to last for upto three months, but isdefinitely dissipated by six months.Tolerance studies are nowplanned for the pig and for therhesus monkey as the next atep inthe eventual induction oftolerance to shock in man. This programhas great eventualbenefits for the combat soldier as well as tociviliansexposed to military or natural catastrophes.

    II. Clinical Shock Unit PatientsA. General Plan of Observat!onahd Treatment

    During the past year, 1968-69, we have studied 85patients inshock at the University of iinnesota Hospitals,with the aid of ourclinical shock unit. While these studiesare not directly suppor-tedby the Research and DevelopmentCommand contract, the results ofthese studies provideevidence of the value of applying theprinciples learned inthe laboratory to the treatment cf theacutely. ill.

    These patiehts who suffered from traumatic cardlogenicor septicshock, or oombinationz of these probiems werestudied with the aidof a mobile shook cart equipped withstrain gauge transducers, atransistorized densitometer, andoihar e pipuc talwi us vsua1lroCnut -rteri -- _venous pressures, cardiac outputs, and otherderived datafor immediate use at the bedside. Such data is alobrecordedfor future use. In addition to hemodynamic studies,respira-tory and metabolic effects of shock are alsorecorded.Arterial and venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensionsandsaturations are measured. Most patients are also beingaesistodwith one of the various types of respirators sooxygen uptake can bemeasured nd, ultimately, oxygen con-sumption determined. Moreover,with the aid of Berggren'sformula and the above dat&, arterialvenous shunting in thelungs can be estimated. Blood pH, andlactate, and serumelectrolytes are also measured and used as aguide to treat-ment. All patients are also catheterized so thathourly urinevolumes can be accurately recorded. All of the abovedata,including a careful examination of the patient areavailablewithin 30 to 45 minutes after the patient in shock isseen.

    Page 6

  • B. Hemodynamic Observations in Septic Shockoonwtant linding inpatients suffering actual or

    impending sepcio shock is a normal or high cardiac outputalongwith a normal o -r low total periph..eral resistance. Thesefitdingsoccur in the face of clinical signs of poor nutri -tional bloodflow buoh a6 aoidoeia, elevated blood lactate,oliguria, and cool,pale, skin.

    The desparity betweea clinical signs of shock and hemo-dyunnicmeasurements of an apparently adequate cardiao outputcan only beex-plained by the opening of arterovenou~s shunts.These can be moateasily demonstrated in. the lung, where wefind -that oxygen tensionof arterial blood is usually belownormal evre though the patient isreceivin 100 percent oxygenl.Moreover, the low arterial venousoxygen -dfference suggestethat blood is bypasaing nutritionalvascular beds not only inthe lung, but in tht other viscera andskin as well. Theseshunts .can ouset it th lung, in the viscera,in. in~flammedpleura, or peritoneixu, or subcutaneous tissues.Attempts tomeasure shunting directly in septic shock in the kidneyhavebegun by placiiag catheters in the'renal artery and renalveinof patients i~u ehoCk. Here again, using'the oxygensaturations,and blood flow studies across this organ, we believe wecanobtain blood flows across the kidney as well as data toindicatewhether shunting is present in this organ in sepsis.

    The living bacterial factors seem responsible for theopening ofshunts since endctoxin in the absence of bacterialinflammation inthe dog does'not lead to shunting In any organas was noted above,However, when an inflammatory process isinduced by chemicals orbacteria along with endotoxins, we thencan reproduce the picturewhich is so characteristically seenin mail of a high caidiac outputand low total peripheralresistance in the face of a severe decreasei~n nutritionalblood flow to the viscera and skin.

    The therapeutic protocol tor the atieuts in septic shockincludesliberal use of blood, plasma, plasma substitutes,low moleculardextran, and balanced salt solutions, combinedwith massiveintravenous doses of corticoasteroidn. usuallymethylprednisolone'(30 mg/kg) or dexamethaisonce (6 mg/kg). AlongW4--tFCCMaS,=,.SV4-- givenc tho bins and a Cogieinrvnul. ~nlytasucfbceilcntaminaticn. is eliu..nated whenever pciarzible. Thiscombinationof measures has lead to the survival (actual dis'chargefromthe hospital) of over 70 percent of th~f patien . anotableimprovement in our own previous resultf. and in th-eresultsreported by others,

    C. Cardiogenic ShockA protocol similar to that outlJtn;:d abovefor thona

    patients suffering septic shock has been uc~v.d with eoci nsincardiogenic shock in which the increascd pruriphert-. rcr-sstanceof cardiogenic shock is dec:ceascE-4 by t'he uee ofmasivedoses ofcorticooteroids. The use of v; 4opresor

    sLLLbutaneva u6 bev a~Lkvoided ia. £iUtt Palta.e

    Page 7

  • D. Impending Shock

    In the past year, we have been called earlier to seeatients whoare suffering sepsis or cardiovascular problmem.

    of these patients still have a nomal blood pressure,alough theymanifest signs of a low cardiac output, and highresistance witholiguria if cardiac damage is the problem.Other patients sufferingsepsis show the typical signs of highcardiac output and lowresistance with oliguria. When thesepatients are seen early andtreated early with fluids andmassive dose of corticoateroids, thensubsequent hypotenaionhas not occurred and survival is near 100 percent. It isour hope that the prevention of shook through tbeventualinduction of tolerence in man combined with earlytreatment'ay virtually eliminate death from 'septio oroardiogenicinsults or following trauma.

    III. Impedance Method for Measuring Cardiac Output in ShockAseparate report has been submitted on this phase

    of our study by Dr. Robert reek.

    Page 8-II


    . F I

  • SM.LC TL) BI~jI OG1 '.1iIY

    1. Dtetzman, R.H. and Lillehei, R.C.: The treatmentofcardiogenic zh6ok IV. The uee'of phenoxybenz~minaarndchlorpromazine, January, 1968, Aw.Heart J. 75: 136.

    2. Dietzman, R.H. and Lil',ehei, B.C..: The treatmentbfcardio~anic shook V. The Use of steroids. February,1968,Am HeartJ. 751 274.

    3. Dietzman, R.HI., Peerster, J.A., Idezuki, Y.,.Bloch,J.H.,anrd Lil2.ehei, R.'.,: Peripheral reeistan'ce changesduringshock in, man. !lay, 1966.Angiolo~y, 19:5, P. 268 .

    4. Dietzoan', R,11.., Nordbeg 1 E David, Loken, M.IK.andLillehei, R.C;t Xenonfbmyocardial blood flowdetermination: Aeimple new balloon teclhnique.June,l968.Am. J. of Physiol.124:6.

    5. 1)ietzmai, R.andLillehei, R..:Natu'-e. and tamnof shock.Di)cembe, 1968. Ho~pital M~edicine ZPub'Jications,Ltd. london,England, 1: 300-304.

    6. Dietzman, R.1., Eroek, R.A., Idezuki, Y. andLillehei,R.C.:Plasma norepinephrine levels during crkrdi~genicshock intormal and endotoxin tolerant dogs. May 6,1968(abstract).JJJ4.A 204: 530-531.

    7. Lillehef, R.C., Break, R.A., Castaneda, A.R, andDietzman,R.H.,: Treatment of low output eynidrome withmethyipreciniso'loneand isoproterenol. May, 1968(abstract). JAAMA 204:530.

    8. Diet~zian, R.H., Dreek, R.,.., Idezuki, Y. andLillcheij'F.C.:Increased sympathetic nervous system activitv--Thelethalfacto-- in experimental cardlogenic shock.I-larch.-April,1968 (abstract). ved..Proc..27:448.

    A.Rl. and Liliehel, B.C .: L&w output syndrome:Recogni-tior- and treatment. Janu y-7, 1969. J.Thor-ac. andCartiov.Surg. 57:#1,.

    10. Motsay, G.J., fliatzuan, R.H. azid 1,lllehei, P.C.: StudyCfthoC -4 C-0,4 CUl1ntio^n i n jip -1 i V"-t pm~j t 1'JJ2il-taotine&of"endotoxin hcked dogs. Katcch-April,1969(abstract No.74). Fed. Proc. 284#2, p.271.

    11. Dietzman, R.H. and Lillehel, R.C.: Clrculatbry CollihpseandShock. 1969. Tice's Practice of Medicine, Vol.VI,Chapter 2, HoeberMedicz~l Division - publihers.

    12. Dietzman, P.11., Bloch, 3.11., Lyons, G.W. andLillehei,R.C..:Prevention of lethal bardiogenic shock inepinephrine-tolerant dos. Apr-Il, 1969, Surgery 65:4 pp.623-628.

    13. Lillbhei, R.%".: Pressor agents in cardiogenic shock.June,1969. Am. J. of Cardiology 23:# 6 ,p.. 900.

    14. Motcay, G.0J., Dietzman, R.11. and Lillehel. R.C.:'Treatmentof endotoxin sho0c, to be pub.Ilovember,l969,Review of Surgezy

    Page 9,

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    Medical Researh and Development

    13 DTATCommand ICIIUsing radioactive microspheres, we have foundthat neither endotr '.n

    nor gram negative bacteria or the combination of the two, whenusedto induce shock in dogs, cause arteriovenous shunts to open inthe gutor the liver. Shunts cannot be demonstrated in the lungsunder thesesame conditions. Inflammation, in addition to injectionof bacteriaand/or endotoxin appears necessary before arteriovenousshunts open.Capillary membrane permeability pressures in shock havebeen measuredin the forepaw of the dog. Shock is associatedwithdecreased capillarypressure due to'leak of fluid throughdamaged capillary walls.Miassivedoses of corticosteroids ortolerance to shock induced with epinephrineor endotoxin preservesmembrane permeability pressure in the normalrange. Tolerance toepinephrine or endotoxin is also associated withdecreasedreactivity of the renal and intestinal microcirculationduringshock. Correlation between laboratory experiments andclinicaltreatment of shock has been obtained with a portable shockunit.

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    Capill~ary Permeabil]ity in Shock

    Art a!Jovenou S; Shunts

    Impodance Cardli ograpli

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Sopt Lic ShockEndotoxin Shock

    Hemorrhagic Shock

    Radioactive I-icrosheres

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What is the relationship between LPS and septic shock? ›

LPS can induce massive production of cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, by immune and nonimmune cells, thereby leading to inflammatory tissue injuries and finally multiorgan failure, the clinical hallmarks of septic shock (3–5).

What is LPS endotoxin in sepsis? ›

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin, the major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is able to activate the host defense system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 4, thus triggering pro-inflammatory mechanisms.

Is septic shock a cardiogenic shock? ›

Sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock is a lethal condition and the management of it is challenging. Cardiogenic shock in the septic patient involves myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

What are the two types of septic shock? ›

Sepsis: Sepsis is when your immune system overreacts to an infection and starts to attack your body's tissues and organs. Severe sepsis: When your immune system starts to attack your organs, they don't receive enough blood, causing them to malfunction. Severe sepsis describes sepsis complicated by organ malfunction.

What are two 2 of the most common causes of septic shock? ›

Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that happens when your blood pressure drops to a dangerously low level after an infection. Any type of bacteria can cause the infection. Fungi such as candida and viruses can also be a cause, although this is rare.

How do you test for LPS in blood? ›

A chromogenic assay is presented for the determination of endotoxin (LPS) in blood. The assay is based upon the LPS-dependent activation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), and the subsequent measurement of the activated enzyme with a chromogenic substrate.

What is the difference between LPS and endotoxin? ›

Bacterial endotoxins (commonly referred to as endotoxins) come from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. LPS is the biologically active portion of an endotoxin. Since endotoxins are fragments of gram-negative cellular walls, they come in many types and sizes. Endotoxins often have more than one LPS structure.

What does LPS endotoxin consist of? ›

Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen).

What does the endotoxin LPS stand for? ›

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

What are the 4 stages of cardiogenic shock? ›

Cardiogenic shock progresses through four stages—initial, compensatory, progressive, and refractory.

Is there a difference between sepsis and septic shock? ›

Severe sepsis develops when the infection causes organ damage. Septic shock is the most severe form in which the infection causes low blood pressure, resulting in damage to multiple organs.

What are signs of cardiogenic shock? ›

Without oxygen-rich blood reaching the brain and other vital organs, your blood pressure drops, and your pulse slows. You may have symptoms such as confusion, sweating, and rapid breathing. You may also lose consciousness. Most often the cause of cardiogenic shock is a serious heart attack.

Can you recover from septic shock? ›

Many people who survive sepsis recover completely and their lives return to normal. However, as with some other illnesses requiring intensive medical care, some patients have long-term effects.

Is septic shock painful? ›

Symptoms of sepsis may vary from person to person, but early signs and symptoms typically include the following: shortness of breath. fever, shivering, or feeling very cold. extreme pain or discomfort.

What are the 3 stages of sepsis? ›

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the body's response to an infection. What are the 3 stages of sepsis? The three stages of sepsis are: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. When your immune system goes into overdrive in response to an infection, sepsis may develop as a result.

What 3 types of infections can lead to septic shock? ›

If you don't stop that infection, it can cause sepsis. Bacterial infections cause most cases of sepsis. Sepsis can also be a result of other infections, including viral infections, such as COVID-19 or influenza, or fungal infections.

What is the most common bacteria causing septic shock? ›

Some of the most frequently isolated bacteria in sepsis are Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus pyogenes (S.

What is the most common cause of septic shock? ›

Respiratory infections are invariably the most common cause of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock [11,21,28]. Overall, respiratory infections account for approximately half of all cases of sepsis.

Can leaky gut cause sepsis? ›

One interesting finding is that leaky gut could be a cause and/or consequence of bacterial sepsis because (i) the severe gut barrier defect induces viable bacterial translocation and bacteraemia, as indicated by DSS-induced sepsis [64,77], and (ii) the damage to the enterocyte TJ during sepsis facilitates leaky gut [45 ...

What foods increase LPS? ›

Bacteria-derived LPS, the “Immuno Vitamin”, is found abundantly in edible plants, such as grains, vegetables, and seaweed.

How do you get rid of LPS bacteria? ›

Potential healthy ways to reduce LPS include cooking with olive oil and eating foods high in pre- and probiotics, polyphenols, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meditation and vagus nerve stimulation might also help, according to limited research data.

What are some key signs and symptoms of a severe reaction to bacterial endotoxin? ›

The human health effects of acute exposure to endotoxin include sepsis; clinical symptoms such as fever, shaking chills, and septic shock; and, at lower doses, toxic pneumonitis, lung function decrements, and respiratory symptoms, such as byssinosis (“Monday morning chest tightness”) (Rylander 2002, 2006).

What are the methods of endotoxin testing? ›

What endotoxin test methods exist? Several endotoxin test methods can be utilized, such as gel-clot, kinetic chromogenic, and kinetic turbidimetric bacterial endotoxin test, as well as the proprietary Endosafe LAL cartridge technology test method.

How much is 1 endotoxin unit? ›

Endotoxin is measured in endotoxin units per milliliter (EU/mL). One EU equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng endotoxin/mL of solution.

What is the acceptable level of endotoxin? ›

FDA regulates the acceptable level of endotoxin contamination with medical devices to be 0.5 endotoxin units/ml [233]. There have been few reports of endotoxin contamination with the use of cardiovascular devices.

What is the difference between IU and EU endotoxin units? ›

Endotoxin is expressed in Endotoxin Units (EU). One EU is equal to one International Unit (IU) of endotoxin. After mixing Standard Endotoxin Stock Solution thoroughly, prepare appropriate serial dilutions of Standard Endotoxin Solution, using water for BET.

What are the effects of LPS endotoxin? ›

LPS activates Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) leading to the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines and, hence, low-grade systemic inflammation. Thus, metabolic endotoxemia can lead to several chronic inflammatory conditions.

What bacteria release LPS? ›

One of the most studied bacterial surface molecules is the glycolipid known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is produced by most Gram-negative bacteria.

What does endotoxin level mean? ›

Endotoxin is measured in Endotoxin Units per milliliter (E.U./mL). One EU/mL equals approximately 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL. Endotoxin is directly related to the quality of collection and processing of serum; the more endotoxin, the more exposure to gram-negative bacteria.

What is the first line drug for cardiogenic shock? ›

Norepinephrine is the most frequently used vasopressor for the treatment of cardiogenic shock.

What is the first line treatment for cardiogenic shock? ›

Emergency and short-term treatments

These include: Clot-busting drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to dissolve coronary artery clots. Anticlotting medicines – such as aspirin, clopidogrel or heparin – to prevent new clots.

What is the drug of choice for cardiogenic shock? ›

Medications to treat cardiogenic shock are given to increase your heart's pumping ability and reduce the risk of blood clots. Vasopressors. These medications are used to treat low blood pressure. They include dopamine, epinephrine (Adrenaline, Auvi-Q), norepinephrine (Levophed) and others.

What are the stages of septic shock? ›

Septic shock typically occurs when pathogenic microorganisms and their byproducts (endotoxins) trigger a systemic inflammatory response in the body. This inflammatory response progresses on a continuum as follows: systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) → sepsis → severe sepsis → septic shock.

How long can you live with septic shock? ›

Research conducted at the Institute of Healthcare Policy and Innovation at the University of Michigan shows that many people die in the months and years following sepsis diagnosis and treatment. Forty percent of the study subjects who survived the first 30 days under hospital care died within two years.

How long can you have sepsis before septic shock? ›

Clinically identified cases of septic shock are more likely to pass away within 28 days than undiagnosed cases. Within the first week of diagnosis, sepsis that progresses to severe sepsis or septic shock increases the risk of death.

What is the most common cause of cardiogenic shock? ›

A heart attack is the most common cause of cardiogenic shock. Less often, another heart problem or a problem somewhere else in the body blocks blood flow coming into or out of the heart and leads to cardiogenic shock.

What are the four main causes of cardiogenic shock? ›

  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
  • Infection of the heart valves (endocarditis)
  • Weakened heart from any cause.
  • Drug overdoses or poisoning with substances that can affect your heart's pumping ability.

What triggers cardiogenic shock? ›

A heart attack is the most common cause of cardiogenic shock. A severe heart attack can damage your heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle). When this happens, your body can't get enough oxygen-rich blood.

Can septic shock damage the brain? ›

Direct brain damage

Severe sepsis can induce life-threatening coagulopathy, including disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and intracerebral hemorrhage [90]. Focal brain lesions should be considered in patients with sepsis who show signs of cognitive impairment.

What is best treatment for septic shock? ›

Patients with suspected septic shock require an initial crystalloid fluid challenge of 30 mL/kg (1-2 L) over 30-60 minutes, with additional fluid challenges. (A fluid challenge consists of rapid administration of volume over a particular period, followed by assessment of the response.) (See Fluid Resuscitation.)

What is the golden hour of sepsis? ›

For example, the “golden hour” as applied to the treatment of critically children and adults with severe sepsis and septic shock is based upon early recognition, early administration of antibiotics, and early reversal of the shock state.

What are red flags for sepsis? ›

Immediate action required: Phone 999 immediately or go to A&E if:
  • loss of consciousness.
  • severe breathlessness.
  • a high temperature (fever) or low body temperature.
  • a change in mental state – like confusion or disorientation.
  • slurred speech.
  • cold, clammy and pale or mottled skin.
  • a fast heartbeat.
  • fast breathing.
Jan 25, 2023

How long does it take to fully recover from septic shock? ›

On average, the recovery period from this condition takes about three to ten days, depending on the appropriate treatment response, including medication.

Does anyone survive septic shock? ›

Organs can fail, which could lead to death. By some estimates, severe sepsis or septic shock strikes nearly 1 million Americans each year. At least 200,000 of them die in the hospital shortly afterward. Many who survive recover completely.

What is the survival rate for septic shock by age? ›

Nasa et al9 found 45.6% mortality in severe sepsis in younger patients (age < 60 years) versus 60.7% in old (age 60–80 years) and 78.9% in very old (age > 80 years) patients.

What is the most severe sepsis? ›

Septic shock is the last and most severe stage of sepsis. Sepsis occurs when your immune system has an extreme reaction to an infection. The inflammation throughout your body can cause dangerously low blood pressure.

What happens end stage sepsis? ›

Severe Sepsis

Severe sepsis impacts and impairs blood flow to vital organs, including the brain, heart and kidneys. It can also cause blood clots to form in internal organs, arms, fingers, legs and toes, leading to varying degrees of organ failure and gangrene (tissue death).

Which part of LPS is responsible for causing septic shock? ›

The presence of LPS in the serum, as low as 1 to 2 mg, can induce toxicity in the host mainly through the lipid A portion (the endotoxin). Endotoxin can induce symptoms of inflammation, fever, and leukopenia, and damage to blood vessels, finally leading to hypotension. High endotoxin can cause septicemia and shock.

What are endotoxins and what role do they play in septic shock? ›

Endotoxin plays a very prominent role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is one of the most important pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), and a large burden of endotoxin triggers an excessive, uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response that leads to multi-organ failure and death.

Does LPS cause shock? ›

Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) are biologically active substances present in Gram-negative bacteria. Injection of purified LPS into experimental animals leads to the development of many biological activities that can lead to shock with lethal outcome.

What systemic condition can LPS cause? ›

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling

The lipid A moiety is the main PAMP within LPS and if excessive signaling occurs through TLR4, this can induce systemic inflammation, a cytokine-storm, and ultimately sepsis (22).

What is the most common site for sepsis and septic shock? ›

Respiratory tract infections, particularly pneumonia, are the most common site of infection, and associated with the highest mortality.

Which component of LPS is responsible for initiating fever and shock in cases of Gram-negative septicemia? ›

Endotoxins are the glycolipid, LPS macromolecules that make up about 75% of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria that are capable of causing lethal shock.

Where is LPS endotoxin found? ›

Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. They elicit a strong immune response in man (e.g., fever, septic shock), and cannot be removed from materials by normal sterilization processes.

Which intervention is a priority for a patient with septic shock? ›

An initial assessment of airway and breathing is vital in a patient with septic shock. Supplemental oxygen should be administered to all patients with suspected sepsis.

What bacteria causes septic shock? ›

All sepsis-causing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, group B streptococci, etc.) have polysaccharide capsules on their surface.

What toxins cause septic shock? ›

Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome can also be caused by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria.

How does LPS trigger inflammation? ›

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and can cause an acute inflammatory response by triggering the release of a vast number of inflammatory cytokines in various cell types. LPS is widely recognized as a potent activator of monocytes/macrophages.

What is the difference between endotoxin and LPS? ›

LPS is the biologically active portion of an endotoxin. Since endotoxins are fragments of gram-negative cellular walls, they come in many types and sizes. Endotoxins often have more than one LPS structure. In contrast, pure LPS is often a monomer or an aggregation of monomers.

Does LPS induce cell death? ›

In this study, we report that LPS induces cell death as measured by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation and that this is coupled with stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38.

What foods are high in LPS? ›

Bacteria-derived LPS, the “Immuno Vitamin”, is found abundantly in edible plants, such as grains, vegetables, and seaweed.

Can LPS cause autoimmune disease? ›

Specifically, studies suggest that certain types of autoimmune diseases and allergies may be linked to LPS. Autoimmune diseases are caused by the body's immune system attacking its own tissues.

How do you reduce endotoxins in your body? ›

Natural Ways to Support Your Body's Detox System
  1. Reduce Added Sugar and Processed Foods. ...
  2. Eat Antioxidant-Rich Foods. ...
  3. Eat High Fiber Foods. ...
  4. Decrease Salt. ...
  5. Eat Anti-Inflammatory Foods. ...
  6. Drink clean water to flush out Toxins. ...
  7. Exercise to Release Toxins. ...
  8. Get good sleep.
Jan 20, 2021

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